The Police Act heard scrutiny and criticism. “The uniformed constables embodied a new style of policing in contrast to the small and disorganized parish forces of the 18th century” (Police, Prisons, And Penal Reform, 2013). ? Peel feared an autocratic society and developed nine policing principles for the London police. Peel’s principles consisted of clear directive, and ensured Parliament the London Metropolitan Police Force meant to protect the public cruel and overwhelming characteristics of the military.
Nevertheless, Parliament feared the possible threat of a military like police force may have over society, and passed the act. Parliament mandated the Metropolitan Police under high discipline, standards, and conduct. Avoiding misconduct and dishonesty the police used techniques such as employing individual’s form outside the city. Peel’s nine principles along with severe scrutiny established democratic and effective policing structure observed today. The American policing originally started with similarities as the British using only two of nine policing principles: military structure and beat patrol.
American policing system primary objective’s were preventive patrol and deter criminal activity, whereas British policing system focused on clear established goals set by Peel, such as preventing crimes. American state, county, and local policing systems did not have objectives and guidelines for officers to follow. This made American police corrupt, brutal, caused politician autocracy, and received attacks from the public. Politicians employed individuals as police officers who backed them, irrespective of education, experience, and qualifications to preserve their own power.
Officer’s enforced laws politicians passed for personal gain. It was common for newly elected politicians to dismiss an entire police force and re-hire individuals who supported his political campaign. Joining police agencies and politicians resulted in brutality and dishonesty to reach political objectives. In the 1900s a call for reorganization and elimination of political control in the policing system, known as the reform agenda. Police were considered public servants with a proficient duty to serve on a nonpartisan foundation. Today’s American police implement Peel’s nine founding principles with some modifications and additions.
American policing still reinventing, has recognized the accomplishments of the British policing system through principles created by Peel. U. S. Government and Policing Organizations Police of the United States consist of federal and state. State level consists of three levels of police: Local, County, and State Police. Highway Patrol and State Police have jurisdiction through their entire state. Patrol areas mainly consist of state highways and Government Buildings. County Sheriffs operate county jails, and patrol areas not within city limits. County Sheriffs are sometimes contracted to serve cities as local police.
City Police Patrol areas within their city limits. According to "Nypd Mission" (2013), “The MISSION of the New York City Police Department is to enhance the quality of life in our City by working in partnership with the community and in accordance with constitutional rights to enforce the laws, preserve the peace, reduce fear, and provide for a safe environment” (para. 1). Federal Level Police include organizations such as Federal Bureau of Investigations, Drug Enforcement Administration, Secret Service, and Immigration and Customs Enforcement.
Federal Police get their authority from the U. S. Constitution that safeguards Congress’ authority to control taxes and regional commerce. For example the Drug Enforcement Administration enforce laws on materials that have a ban. Police Practice and Government Relationship Each state is independent over their land and is different in respects to their Penal Codes. Federal organizations are regulated by Congress and seek national criminals and Tax linked laws. No state can create laws that fringe on the federal government according to the Constitution.
The Constitution also controls the federal governments power over the states. The government may pass laws and often set guidelines for police agencies. Basically the government guides police agencies in a direction in which they believe the policing should be going. References NYPD Mission. (2013). Retrieved from http://www. nyc. gov/html/nypd/html/administration/mission. shtml Police, Prisons, and Penal Reform. (2013). Retrieved from http://www. parliament. uk/about/living-heritage/transformingsociety/laworder/policeprisons/overview/metropolitanpolice/Sir