Background of the Study Chicken and Poultry Raising in the Philippines Among the poultry species utilized for food production in the whole world, the chicken ranks as the most exploited fowl species. In fact, in the Philippines, chicken is first in economic importance as source of meats and eggs making chicken broiler and egg production as the most progressive animal enterprise in the country. Owing to this fact, this industry has been considerable attention in scientific researches and experimentation.
Feeding practices is a vital factor in chicken growth and development, and as such, feeding is the primary activity in this industry. As chicken ages, their nutritional need changes thus feeding begins at Day 2 post hatching and continues in different amounts and kind of chicken feeds until the chickens are ready for harvest and/or egg laying at Day 45. Chicken feeds include different kinds such as chick crumbs, grower pellets, layer pellets and breeder pellets. Of different composition, these chicken feeds are manufactured according to the needs of a rapidly growing chicken.
With ample amounts of chicken feeds and water, proper nutrition for broiler chickens is ensured. Feed supplements are also employed to augment nutrition and offer treatment to a flock of chickens. These supplements include grains, fruits and vegetables, grit, oyster shells, and even garlic. In fact, a number of foreign poultry farms utilize garlic to boost a flock’s immune system by putting one or two garlic cloves, unpeeled, uncrushed into the water and leaving it there until they start to sprout. Feed manufacturers and farmers alike always try to enhance their flock’s health by utilizing proper feeds and supplements.
Jackfruit, Malunggay and Mongo Beans Fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of nutrition and are natural energy boosters. These are loaded with nutrients, vitamins, minerals and amino acids for a balanced body growth and nutrition. Since time immemorial, these have been a ready health resource for humankind as both food stock and feed for their livestock. Jackfruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus or A. heteropylla) is a species of tree in the mulberry family (Moraceae), which is native to parts of Southern and Southeast Asia.
It is believed indigenous to the rain forests of the Western Ghats of India. It is well suited to humid tropical lowlands and near tropical climates. Its fruit is the largest tree-borne fruit in the world, reaching 80 pounds (36 kg) in weight and up to 36 inches (90 cm) long and 20 inches (50 cm) in diameter. The pulp of the ripe jackfruit may be eaten fresh or incorporated into fruit salad. The seeds, which appeal to all tastes, are eaten when boiled or roasted. The flesh of the jackfruit is starchy, fibrous and is a source of dietary fiber.
The flavor is similar to a tart banana. Varieties of jackfruit are distinguished according to the characteristics of the fruits’ flesh. In Brazil, three varieties are recognized. These are: jaca-dura, or “hard” variety, which has firm flesh and the largest fruits that can weigh between 15 to 40 kilograms each; jaca-mole, or “soft” variety, which bears smaller fruits, with softer and sweeter flesh; and jaca-manteiga, or “butter” variety, which bears sweet fruits, whose flesh has a consistency intermediate between the “hard” and “soft” varieties.
Moringa(Moringa oelifera), the English name, which is called Malunggay in the Philippines and Sajina in Indian Subcontinent and South East Asia is a wonderful herb known all over the world. It is best known as an excellent source of nutrition and a natural energy booster. Malunggay leaves was once considered a "poor man's vegetables" but now it is known as a "miracle tree" or "nature's medicine cabinet" by scientists and health care workers from around the world because it is loaded with vitamins and minerals that can be an effective remedy against many kinds of ailments.
Other health benefits identified by people who use Moringa continue this same pattern: immune system strengthened, skin condition restored, blood pressure controlled, headaches and migraines handled, diabetes sugar level managed, inflammations and arthritis pains reduced, tumors restricted and ulcers healed. As loaded with nutrients, each ounce of Moringa contains seven times the Vitamin C found in oranges, four times the Vitamin A of carrots, three times the iron of spinach, four times as much calcium as milk and three times the potassium of bananas.
Mung beans are commonly used in Chinese cuisine, where they are called ludou (literally "green bean"), as well as in Burma (where it is called penauk or peti), Thailand, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, and Southeast Asia. In Vietnam, they are called d? uxanh (again, literally "green bean"). In Indonesia, they are called kacanghijau or katjangidju, and are generally eaten either whole (with or without skins) or as bean sprouts, or used to make the dessert "green bean soup".
The starch of mung beans is also extracted from them to make jellies and "transparent" or "cellophane" noodles. Mung beans are light yellow in color when their skins are removed. They can be made into mung bean paste by dehulling, cooking, and pulverizing the beans to a dry paste. In Hong Kong, dehulled mung beans and mung bean paste are made into ice cream or frozen ice pops. Mung bean paste is used as a common filling for Chinese moon cakes in East China and Taiwan. Also in China, the boiled and shelled beans are used as filling in glutinous rice dumplings eaten during the dragon boat festival.
Aside from culinary purposes and providing health benefit to the people, these plants can also be utilized for other essential purposes, i. e. as feed supplements for poultry raising, especially in the present that clamour for organic farm-raised livestock and foodstock is rising. Consequently, the researchers believe that the jackfruit seed flour mixed with dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans will provide additional nutritional effects to commercial feeds if used as a feed supplement.
This study is focused on determining the effect of the jackfruit seed flour mixed with dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans as feed supplement to commercial chick feeds. The researchers aim to provide additional effective and cost efficient alternatives and supplements to chick feeds to help a very important economic industry in our country. Statement of the Problem This research study aims to determine the effect of the jackfruit seeds flour mixed with dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans as supplement to commercial chick feeds.
Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions:
Is the jackfruit seed flour mixed with dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans an effective supplement to commercial chick feeds?
What benefits do chicks get from the jackfruit seed flour mixed with dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans as a feed supplement to commercial chick feeds?
Is there significant difference between the commercial feeds and the commercial feeds supplemented with jackfruit seed flour mixed with dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans?
Significance of the Study The outcome of this study will be significant to the following group of persons: General Public. This study will provide the public added assurance of the good quality of feeds and feed supplements that poultry product in the market consumes. Community Leaders. This study will allow the community leaders to start programs that will spread the effectiveness of jackfruit seed flour mixed with dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans as effective chicken feed supplements for the awareness of the public.
Students, Instructors, and Researchers. This study will benefit them the knowledge, skills and information necessary for dissemination of the jackfruit seed flour mixed with dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans as chicken feed supplements and the associated facts about the intertwined discipline of science and agriculture. Scope and Delimitation of the Study The research study was conducted from June 2010 to March 2011 in the Nabua National High School under the supervision of Ms. Neraldin Adela M. Deris, the research teacher.
The research study was focused on testing the effect on broiler chicks fed with commercial chick feeds supplemented with flour mixture made from jackfruit seed, dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans compared with chicks fed with commercial chick feeds only. It was delimited on determining the effect of jackfruit seeds mixed with dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans as a supplement to commercial chick feeds. Definition of Terms In the context of the study, the following terms were operationally and conceptually defined to give substantial meaning and for easy understanding. Effect refers to something produced by an action or cause.
It is that which it is produced, usually more or less immediately and directly. Commercial chicken feeds are manufactured dry mash for poultry. Control group refers to the group of chicks used as test subject that were fed with commercial chicken feed only. Experimental group refers to the group of chicks used as test subject that were fed with the commercial chicken feeds supplemented with jackfruit flour mixed with malunggay and monggo beans.
Review of Related Literature and Studies
This chapter will introduce the review of related literature, and conceptual frameworks of the study.
The review of related literature will provide clear understanding regarding the variables being studied from other published information; the review of related studies will enumerate the similarities of variables of the present study from other studies; the conceptual framework will present the correlation of variables and its diagrammatic representation of the variables of the thesis. These elements that were enumerated above will serve as the building block and will give great help to support and understand more the background of this study.
Early men and early researchers both foreign and local were able to recognize the therapeutic actions and properties of certain plants and started gathering, collecting and afterwards reproducing those plants in mass for future intentions. Some plants have recently attracted the attention of modern science because of their potential medicinal effect and benefits to human beings. At present, there are now large quantities of works, articles, books and readings published and compiled in bookstores, libraries and nowadays can be easily found and are widely spread on the internet.
These articles contained information and descriptions of the use of lots of identified and acknowledged useful plants in our ecosystem. Jackfuit, malunggay and monggo beans belong to these known useful plants since it has many identified nutrients and effective therapeutic actions to human beings. Jackfruit (Artocarpus Heterophyllus) It is commonly used as a cuisine in Southeast Asian and South Asian countries. In South India, the jackfruit is a popular food ranking after mango and banana. They are large trees often reaching 60 feet (20 m) in nature. It is a native to south western of India, Philippines, Sri Lanka and east of Malaysia.
It is believed that jackfruit’s origin to the rainforests of the Western Ghat of India. It was introduced to into northern Brazil in the mid of 19th and became very popular there. The jackfruit tree is believed to be indigenous to the south western rain forests of India. It is widely cultivated in the tropical regions of Indian subcontinent, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Brazil for its fruit, seeds and wood. The tree grows best under tropical humid and rainy regions but rarely survives cold and frosty conditions, grows to as high as 30 meters, higher than the mango tree.
During the season, each tree bears as many as 250 large fruits, supposed to be the largest tree-borne fruit in the world. The fruit varies widely in size, weigh from 3 to 30 kg and has oblong or round shape measuring 10 cm to 60 cm in length, 25 to 75 cm in diameter. The unripe fruits are green in color; when ripen, might turn to light brown color and gives pungent smell. Like durian fruit, its outer surface is covered with blunt thorn like projections which become soft in ripened fruit. The interior consists of orange-yellow colored edible bulbs.
Each bulb consists of sweet flavored sheaths that enclose a smooth, oval, light-brown color seed. Jack fruit seed is 2 to 4 cm long and 1 to 3 cm thick and is white and crisp within. There may be as many as 100 to 500 edible bulbs embedded in a single fruit interspersed between thin bands of fibers. Almost all the parts of the tree gives white sticky latex like juice when injured. The fruit is made of soft, easily digestible flesh (bulbs) with simple sugars like fructose and sucrose that wheneaten replenishes energy and revitalizes the body instantly.
Jack-fruit is rich in dietary fiber, which makes it a good bulk laxative. Mung Bean Also known as green bean, choroko (in Swahili), mung, mongo, moong, moog (whole) or moog dal (split) (in Bengali, Marathi), mash bean, munggo or monggo, green gram, golden gram, and green soy, is the seed of Vigna radiate which is native to Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. The split bean is known as pesara(Telugu), which is green with the husk, and yellow when dehusked. The beans are small, ovoid in shape, and green in color. The English word "mung" derives from the Hindi: mung.
The mung bean is one of many species recently moved from the genus Phaseolus to Vigna, and is still often seen cited as Phaseolusaureus or Phaseolusradiates. Moringa Oleifera Commonly referred to as "Shojne" in Bengali, "Munagakaya" in Telugu, "Shevaga" in Marathi & "Nuggekai" in Kannada, "Moringa"(from Tamil: Murungai, Malayalam: Mashingasanga, Konkani: Muringa), is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the family Moringaceae. It is an exceptionally nutritious vegetable tree with a variety of potential uses.
The tree itself is rather slender, with drooping branches that grow to approximately 10 m in height. In cultivation, it is often cut back annually to 1 meter or less and allowed to regrow so that pods and leaves remain within arm's reach. The immature green pods called “drumstick” are probably the most valued and widely used part of the tree. They are commonly consumed in India and are generally prepared in a similar fashion to green beans and have a slight asparagus taste. The seeds are sometimes removed from more mature pods and eaten like peas or roasted like nuts.
The leaves are highly nutritious, being a significant source of beta-carotene, Vitamin C, protein, iron, and potassium.  The leaves are cooked and used like spinach. In addition to being used fresh as a substitute for spinach, its leaves are commonly dried and crushed into a powder, and used in soups and sauces. Murungakai, as it is locally known in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, is used in Siddha medicine. The tree is a goodsource for calcium orus. In Siddha medicines, these drumstick seeds are used as a sexual virility drug for treatingerectile dysfunction in men and also in women for prolonging sexual activity.
Moringa leaves and pods are helpful in increasing breast milk in the breastfeeding months. One tablespoon of leaf powder provides 14% of the protein, 40% of the calcium, 23% of the iron and most of the vitamin A needs of a child aged one to three. Six tablespoons of leaf powder will provide nearly all of the woman's daily iron and calcium needs during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The Moringa seeds yield 38–40% edible oil (called ben oil from the high concentration of behenic acid contained in the oil). The refined oil is clear, odorless, and resists rancidity at least as well as any other botanical oil.
The seed cake remaining after oil extraction may be used as a fertilizer or as a flocculent to purify water. The bark, sap, roots, leaves, seeds, oil, and flowers are used in traditional medicine in several countries. In Jamaica, the sap is used for a blue dye. Chicken Feeds Feed comes in three forms: crumbles, pellets, and mash. Research has shown that chickens grow and lay better on crumbles (commonly used for finisher rations and some adult feeds). Pellets (usually used for adult birds) are the second-best, whereas mash is the least-preferred although the most common for starter rations. Starter rations for chicks
The ration for layer-breed chicks, usually called “starter rations,” should be 20 percent protein. From the time they start eating, meat chicks need a high protein feed of about 22 to 24 percent protein for the first six weeks. It’s called “meat bird starter” or “broiler starter. ” Cornish X Rock crosses (Broiler chickens) grow extremely quickly and require precise diets. After the first six weeks, the protein percentage for these birds can be lowered to 18 to 20 percent until they’re butchered. “Meat bird” or “broiler grower-finisher” is generally a label aimed at meat birds in their last weeks.
Grower and finisher rations shouldn’t contain antibiotics because these can be carried into the meat. Synthesis of the State-of-the-art The current study “The Effect of jackfruit seed flour mixed with dried malunggay leaves and mongo beans as chicken feed supplement” has similarities in some aspects to the previous studies carried out by other health and agricultural researchers. For example, the seed of the jackfruit as alternative flour, the process or method of preparation used and the objective of the researcher why it was the chosen topic to be studied. The present study was similar to the previous research by T.
Papazyan and P. Surai who studied the effects of Selenium feed supplementation on chick growth and development. The study mentioned evaluated the effects of Selenium supplementation on growing chicks. The difference of the present study to the previously mentioned study is that the present study will emphasize on jackfruit, malunggay and monggo bean flour mix as feed supplement on commercial feeds and its effects be studied upon based on the chick’s weight changes. Conceptual Framework Assumptions of the Study The study will be conducted in the following assumptions that: 1.
The jackfruit seed flour mixed with dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans is effective as a commercial chicken feed supplement. 2. The jackfruit seed flour mixed with dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans would help the chicken and poultry raisers consider a healthier and organic feed supplement to commercially manufactured ones. Null Hypothesis (H0) There is no significant difference in weight of chicks fed with commercial chick feeds supplemented with flour mixture of jackfruit seed, dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans and the weight of chicks fed with commercial feeds only.
Alternative Hypothesis (Ha) There is significant difference in weight of chicks fed with commercial chick feeds supplemented with flour mixture of jackfruit seed, dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans and the weight of chicks fed with commercial feeds only.
Research Method The study made use of the experimental method to assess the effectiveness of jackfruit seed flour mixed with dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans. The experimental method comprised the systematic procedure that was used in the course of the present study.
Preparation of the Jackfruit, Malunggay and Mongo Beans Flour Mixture Preparation of the individual ingredient of the flour mixture is first done separately. The jackfruit seeds were first boiled to easily remove the seed coat. After removing the seed coat, the seeds were ground into a pulp, sieved, and oven baked until it was ready to be grounded into flour like consistency. The malunggay leaves on the other hand were sun-dried first until it was ready to be finely grounded and sieved. The monggo beans underwent the same procedure as the jackfruit seeds. When all the three components were ready they were evenly mixed.
Preparation of Flour The Experimental Set-up Two groups of two day old broiler chicks of almost equal weight made up of 15 chicks each were used. The control group were fed with commercial chick feeds, specifically chick starter feeds, without the flour mixture supplement. The experimental group were fed with chick starter feeds with the flour mixture supplement. Each group were fed ad libitum (ie, spontaneously, without any fixed hours or times in a day) for 10 days (from day 3 to day 13 post hatching). Each chick were weighed before the battery of feeding began each day from Day 1 to Day 10.
Results and Discussion
Table 1. 1. The Experimental Group. Mass (g) of chicks fed with commercial chick starter feeds with jackfruit, malunggay and monggo beans flour mixture supplement Chick| Mass in grams (g)|. The statistical tool used in the research study was the t-test. The null hypothesis (H0) is that there is no significant difference in weight of chicks fed with commercial chick feeds supplemented with flour mixture of jackfruit seed, dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans and the weight of chicks fed with commercial feeds only. The alternative hypothesis (Ha) is there is significant difference in weight of chicks fed with commercial hick feeds supplemented with flour mixture of jackfruit seed, dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans and the weight of chicks fed with commercial feeds only. The result from the statistical treatment is the calculated t is larger than the t critical so the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected and the alternative hypothesis (Ha)is accepted. It is found that the flour mixture of jackfruit seed, dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans is effective as a feed supplement to commercially manufactured chick starter feeds. Findings The following findings were drawn from the research. 1.
That there is significant difference between the weights of the chicks of the experimental and control group before and after feeding. The chicks of the experimental group, that is, those fed with chicken starter feeds with the jackfruit, malunggay and monggo beans flour mixture were found to be heavier than those of the control group. 2. The alternative hypothesis is accepted that there is significant difference in weight of chicks fed with commercial chick feeds supplemented with flour mixture of jackfruit seed, dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans and the weight of chicks fed with commercial feeds only.
With the context of the findings of this study, the researchers conclude that the jackfruit seed flour mixed with dried malunggay leaves and monggo beans is an effective chicken feed supplement. Recommendation Based on the findings and conclusions, it is recommended that the future researchers should add new ideas that would enhance the effectiveness of the product.
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